Much has been said in the press of the dreaded threat of ‘cyber warfare’, but little detail or clarity has given dimension to this threat of sinister activity. Comments from the UK’s Secretary of State for Defence Phillip Hammond such as, “It’s a new capability… we should explore the boundaries of it,” do little to reassure us that world politicians are imbued with the necessary understanding of this emerging threat. It is necessary for governments to recognize and fully understand the consequences of this hazard, so they can proactively formulate sanctions and policy that need to be developed by the international community.
Current U.S. leadership emphasizes the need for collective action to face today’s transnational security matters. At the CNAS National Security Conference on June 11, 2014, National Security Advisor Susan Rice gave a keynote address that focused on just that: global alliances and mobilizing coalitions. Rice asserted that when the United States encourages collective action, “we deliver outcomes that are more legitimate, more sustainable, and less costly.”
Just over one year ago, Glenn Greenwald’s NSA surveillance article in The Guardian shocked the U.S. public and the world. Disclosures of documents and court orders (e.g., Verizon) provided by Edward Snowden, then a Booz Allen Hamilton employee, revealed the scope of NSA spying and introduced the term “metadata” into the public consciousness. Metadata refers to the “envelope” of a phone call or internet communication, which usually includes location information. For a phone call, metadata includes call duration, phone numbers, and time of day; for an email, this includes the sender, the recipient, and time of day, but not the subject or content. [For a complete timeline of the NSA scandal’s unfolding, see this BBC piece.]
Economic growth in the Philippines is among the highest in Asia, with 5.9 percent in the second quarter of 2012. Unfortunately though, the bulk of the financial benefits associated with this growth continue to escape the majority of Filipinos living in poverty. According to the most recent estimates from The World Bank, 26.5 percent of the Filipino population is living in poverty. This high rate of economic disparity remains one of the largest factors driving many Filipinos into human trafficking situations. Despite recent economic advancements, the Philippines continue to be one of the largest source countries for sex trafficking and forced labor victims around the world.
As the Syrian civil war enters its 36th month, it is becoming clearer that the conflict is spilling into neighboring states. In Syria, Bashar al-Assad has been waging a bloody war with Sunni insurgents. Assad is an Alawite Muslim, which is an offshoot of Shiite Islam. The Syrian Government has become dependent on religious allies for support, and Sunni fundamentalist groups have become the strongest opposition. Iran and Hezbollah have actively backed their long-term ally in the Assad government, while Saudi Arabia and Qatar have supported the Sunni rebels. The war has morphed into a larger fight between Sunnis and Shiites that has spread into neighboring countries, and has the potential to ignite a wider conflict across the entire region.
During World War II and the years that followed, the United States developed alliances that would be critical to fighting communism and maintaining stability. Across the globe, nations aligned with Washington to ward off communist expansionism. During the Cold War, the United States and its allies would often put their own national interests aside to focus on the larger threat of the Soviet Union and its allies. The shared threat of communism was the glue that held alliances together in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.
In India, the world’s largest democracy, there are numerous examples of groups choosing to articulate their goals by forming political parties, or choosing terrorism. There are over 1,400 registered political parties in India, many which claim to represent specific regional or ideological interests. Despite a myriad of specialized political groups, India has still experienced more terrorist attacks than almost any other country, with nearly 7,500 attacks since 1970. Compare this to Canada, which has only experienced 64 attacks in the same time period. With so many political parties available, it seems like most groups could address their grievances through the democratic system, yet terrorism remains all too common across the subcontinent.
This is the fifth article in an ongoing series examining the role of UAVs—commonly called "drones"—exploring the uses of unmanned aerial technology outside of traditional or well-publicized wartime uses. Read the first, second, third, and fourth articles.
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